ESS is short for Energy Storage System. It is a combination of standard multipurpose Victron products, setup with an ESS configuration. In the system, there must at least be one inverter/charger and also the Color Control GX.
Other components can be added when needed, see chapter 2.
Use ESS in a self-consumption system, a backup system with solar or a mixture of both: for example using the top 30% of the battery capacity for self-consumption, while keeping the other 70% available as a backup during a utility grid failure.
at times when there is excess PV power, the PV energy is stored in the battery. That stored energy is then used to power the loads at times when there is a shortage of PV power.
The percentage of battery capacity used for optimizing self-consumption is configurable: set it to 100% for (Western Europe / Germany). Or for locations with frequent, or even daily, grid failures, set the threshold to 80%. Only the top 20% will be used to optimize self-consumption, the rest of the capacity is reserved for grid failures. African countries for example.
Keep batteries charged:
Besides using (part of) the battery for self-consumption, ESS can also be configured to always keep the batteries charged. Failures of the utility grid are then the only moments when energy from the battery is used to power the loads (backup). Once the grid is restored, the batteries will be recharged with power from the grid, and of course also solar when available.
ESS can both be used with an external grid-meter, and without one.
With grid-meter, a full or partial grid-parallel system.
Without grid-meter: All loads connected to AC-out. And in case of PV Inverters, also connected to AC out.
Power from an MPPT can be fed back to the grid. Enabled/disabled by a user setting on the CCGX: Settings → ESS.
By using the Power Reduction feature in Fronius grid-tie inverters, the ESS system can automatically reduce the output of the PV Inverter as soon as feed-back is detected; without switching and frequency shifting.
It is not possible to combine ESS with the Fronius Smart Meter; it is not necessary either, since ESS already has metering.
With ESS, it is not possible to disable feed-in a system with other brands of grid-tie inverters. See Chapter 2.1.2 for more information.
See ESS mode 2 and 3.
All loads are wired on the output of the inverter/charger. The ESS mode is configured to 'Keep batteries charged'.
When using a grid-tie inverter, it is connected to the output as well.
While the mains is available, the battery will be charged with power from both the mains and PV. When available, loads are powered from PV.
Feed-in is optional, and can be enabled or disabled depending on local regulations.
The Energy Storage system, uses a Multi or Quattro bidirectional inverter/charger as its main component.
Victron Lithium batteries
Lithium and other advanced battery technology batteries from other manufacturers
Lead batteries: OPzS and OPzV
Make sure to take the relatively high internal resistance into account, while designing a system with OPzS or OPzV batteries.
Lead batteries: AGM / GEL
Note that the use of standard AGM and GEL batteries is not recommended for installations configured to fully cycle the battery every day.
In most situations, it is not necessary to install a battery monitor:
The only situation where an external battery monitor is necessary is for systems that have additional sources of power, for example a DC wind generator, and that have a battery type with no built-in battery monitor. For example lead batteries, or Victron 12.8V lithium batteries.
In case an additional battery monitor is necessary, use one of these:
For a full or partial grid-parallel installation, an Energy Meter can be installed in the main distribution panel: between the grid and the installation.
This meter is only needed when there is an additional energy source (e.g. PV) connected in between the grid and the input side of the Multi/Quattro systems in the installation. If all renewable energy sources are connected 'downstream' (on the output side) of the inverter/chargers, this additional grid meter is not required.
ESS can work with both Grid-tie PV inverters and/or MPPT Solar Chargers. A mix of both is also possible.
When using Grid-tie PV Inverters, it is recommended to visualize its power on the CCGX. See CCGX manual for the options.
ESS can also be operated without PV, typically for virtual power plants, clustering a large number of small storage systems together to be used for energy arbitrage on a utility level.
ESS can work with either an MPPT Solar Charger or a grid-tie inverter, and a mix of both.
Generally speaking, a MPPT Solar Charger will be more effective than a grid-tie inverter in a small system.
When the majority of the energy consumption takes place in the morning and the evening, an MPPT Solar Charger will be more efficient: it charges the battery with up to 99% efficiency. Whereas the PV energy coming from a grid-tie inverter is first converted from DC to AC, and then back from AC to DC, causing losses up to 20 or 30%.
When the majority of the energy consumption takes place during the day, the best example is an office with air-conditioning, a grid-tie inverter will be more efficient. After (very efficient) conversion to AC, the PV energy is used directly by the air-condition.
Consider using an MPPT Solar Charger, or otherwise a Fronius PV Inverter and then use the Zero feed-in function. This will lead to a much more stable system.
The rules around feed-in differ all around the world:
Feed-in of PV connected via an MPPT Solar Charger can be enabled and disabled in the Energy Storage Systems menu in the CCGX. Note that when disabled, the PV power will still be used to power AC loads.
When using an MPPT Solar Charger, feed-in can be enabled and disabled from the settings menu on the CCGX.
For Fronius grid-tie inverters, ESS has a special feature: zero feed-in.
Using other brands of grid-tie inverters in a no-feed-in system is not recommended. With ESS it is not possible at all to prevent feed-in for this case. And using the alternative, the Hub-2 Assistant, leads to a sub optimal installation as well. Often complaints about flickering lights and even risks of the whole system shutting down in overload when a large load is switched on or off.
All Victron MPPT solar chargers can be used: both the models with a VE.Direct comm. port as well as the models with a VE.Can comm. port.
There are two options when connecting the grid-tie inverter:
When connected on the AC out, the factor 1.0 rule needs to be adhered to. There are no exceptions to this. So, also use the factor 1.0 rule in countries where the utility grid rarely fails. And also use it when connecting a Fronius grid-tie inverter on the AC out, and using zero feed-in.
In a grid-parallel system, the battery size is dictated
In a backup system, the battery size is calculated by the required autonomy during a mains failure.
See AC-Coupling minimum battery capacity for minimum battery sizes of systems with a grid-tie PV Inverter connected on the AC output of the Multi(s) or Quattro(s).
The required size of the inverter/charger depends on the type of installation.
In a grid-parallel installation, the size of the inverter/charger can be (much) smaller than the highest expected nominal and peak loads. For example, to cover the base load of a two person household, an 800VA inverter/charger might already be sufficient. For a household with one family, a 3000VA inverter/charger can already manage nearly all appliances, when not more than one of them is running at the same time. This means that it can already reduce the power consumption during late spring, summer days and early autumn with sufficient storage to (nearly) zero.
In a backup installation, the inverter/charger needs to be sized according to the loads.
ESS always requires anti-islanding. Also in a no-feed-in-system.
For several countries the built-in anti-islanding in our products can be used. For example the MultiGrid in Germany, and the MultiPlus in the United Kingdom. See certificates on our website for details.
In case there is no certified product available for the country of installation, install external anti-islanding.
Follow the manuals of each component for its installation.
When installing a single phase ESS in a system with a three-phase connection to the utility grid, make sure to install the ESS on phase one, L1.
Multi, MultiPlus, MultiGrid or Quattro
Connect the temperature sensor as supplied with the device. Installations with multiple units in parallel, and/or dual- or three-phase configurations: the temperature sense wire can be connected to any unit in the system. For more information, see the Parallel and three phase VE.Bus systems.
The Multi itself will -of course- use the measured battery temperature for temperature-compensated charging. Also when charging with power coming from a grid-tie PV Inverter. Both when connected to mains, and, in case of a mains failure, with solar power coming from a grid-tie PV Inverter connected to the output.
Solar chargers will automatically use the information from the Multi or Quattro to do temperature-compensated charging as well. Both VE.Direct Solar chargers and VE.Can Solar chargers.
Multi, MultiPlus, Multi Grid and Quattros: wire the voltage sense according to the manuals
VE.Direct solar chargers: there is no voltage sense option: no voltage sense is being used.
VE.Can solar chargers: install a voltage sense wire on one of the solar chargers in each sync group.
Update all components to the latest firmware version:
For firmware files and instructions, see the Firmware section in Victron Professional
Settings to be made in VEConfigure:
Notes with regards to the Input current limit and PowerAssist:
Optimized (with BatteryLife) and Optimized (without BatteryLife)
At times when there is excess PV power, the PV energy is stored in the battery. That stored energy is then used later, to power the loads at times when there is a shortage of PV power.
Keep batteries charged
Failures of the utility grid are the only periods at which the battery will be discharged. Once the grid is restored, the batteries will be recharged with power from the grid, and of course also solar, when available.
The ESS control algorithms are disabled. Use this when self-implementing a control loop. More information.
For details on BatteryLife operation, see Chapter 6.2. In short, enable BatteryLife for these technologies:
And, though we recommend to leave it enabled, BatteryLife can be disabled for these battery technologies:
Note though, that even for those technologies we recommend to enable BatteryLife. Ask yourself, “Why should the battery be fully discharged, and stay that way? With as a result no reserve power in case of mains failure”.
Set to 'On' to enable ESS on a system without grid meter. All loads and (optional) grid-tie inverters need to be installed on the AC out.
Setting this to Disabled hides the AC-out box from the graphical overview. Use this in systems where there is nothing connected to the output of the Multi or Quattro, which is typical for certain grid-parallel systems in Western Europe.
Set to 'On' to make the Solar Charger always operate at its maximum power point. The first priority is powering the loads, second priority will be charging the battery. And if there is then even more power available, the inverter/charger will feed that into the utility grid.
Single phase connection to the utility grid
Phase compensation setting has no effect and can be ignored.
Single phase ESS in a system with a three-phase connection to the utility grid
Three phase ESS in a system with a three-phase connection to the utility grid
For more background information, see chapter 7.
Configurable minimum SOC limit. Either with or without BatteryLife enabled, ESS will stop discharging the battery once it has been discharged to the here configured level.
Exception: when the utility grid has failed and the system is in Inverter mode, it will keep discharging the battery until one of the other thresholds have been met. See chapter 6.1 for more information.
(only when BatteryLife is enabled)
This % shows the working limit of the system.
Use this setting to see the current BatteryLife SOC level.
The different BatteryLife states are:
Limits the charge power by the Multi. Because their power is used by the Multi, this includes power coming from grid-tie PV Inverters.
In other words, this setting limits the flow of power from AC to DC.
Limit the discharge power by the Multi: ie all power being inverted from DC to AC.
The power taken from the grid when in self-consumption mode. Setting this value slightly above 0W will prevent the system to feed back power to the grid when there is a bit of over-shoot in the regulation. The default is value 50W, but should be set to a higher value on large systems.
In ESS, the MPPT Solar Chargers will follow the charge curve as set in VEConfigure. The charge parameters configured in the MPPT Solar Chargers themselves are ignored in an ESS setup.
Except for the charge current. This still needs to be configured in the MPPTs
No special configuration necessary.
No special configuration necessary. Do make sure to leave the Device instance configured to 0 (the default). MPPTs in the VE.Can network configured to a different Device instance will not be managed by ESS.
The MPPT state, as visible in the menus of the CCGX, of connected MPPT Solar Chargers shows 'Hub'. Or 'ESS'.
On the MPPT itself the Bulk will always be lit. And the Bulk LED will be shortly blinking every 4 seconds. That blink indicates that the MPPT is remotely controlled.
Grid Meter is shown in the Device list of the CCGX
After configuring the system, the system will immediately start charging the battery.
Steps to verify operation:
In the Settings → ESS menu, the Zero feed-in active item shows Yes.
(Note: All absolute voltages mentioned in the text below are for a 12V system and should be multiplied by 2 or 4 for a 24V or 48V system.)
When there is less PV power available than needed by the loads (a PV shortage, at night for example), energy stored in the battery will be used to power the loads. This continues until the battery is considered empty.
While mains is available, there are three parameters that check if the battery is empty:
When there is no mains, and the system is in inverter mode, these parameters control the depth of discharge:
What about the Sustain mode?
The Sustain voltages do not effect when the system stops discharging the battery: Sustain is activated only after the battery has been flagged as empty. See Sustain section below for more information.
In case the expected Solar energy reduces, because of less sunshine, the system will automatically increase its low SOC limit. So that, with this reduced expected Solar Energy, the battery will still be fully charged at the end of the day to approx 100%.
In case the expected Solar energy increases, because of more sunshine, the system will automatically decrease its low SOC limit. So that, with this increased expected Solar Energy, the battery will still be fully charged at the end of the day to approx 100%.
Ask yourself, “Why should the battery be fully discharged, and stay that way? With as a result no reserve power in case of mains failure, and possible also a damaged battery”.
The BatteryLife feature prevents low battery state of charge over a long period. For example in winter, when there is insufficient PV power available to recharge the battery every day.
BatteryLife ensures that, on average, the battery will be recharged to 100% SOC, every day.
It has several advantages:
To do this we introduce a dynamic lower limit on the state of charge. Discharging is allowed only if the state of charge exceeds the limit. The limit is adjusted every day. On days with little or no surplus PV power the limit will be raised. And on 'good' days the limit is lowered again.
The limit indicates how much surplus PV power we expect during the day; a low limit means we expect a lot of PV power available to charge the battery. Ensuring that the system will not discharge more energy at night than it is expected to charge the next day.
This graph shows a system in the spring, battery state of charge graphed over time. During the week progressing, more solar energy is becoming available, and you see the depth of discharge being increased. The red line shows how this system would operate without BatteryLife.
The ESS Assistant includes Dynamic Cut-off. This feature makes the DC-input low shut-down level a function of the battery current drawn from the battery. When a high current is being drawn from the battery, a lower shut-down voltage threshold is being used. For example 10 V. And similarly, when the battery is only being discharged slowly, a high DC cut-off voltage is used, for example 11.5 V.
This way, voltage drop caused by the internal resistance in the battery is compensated. Making battery voltage a much more reliable parameter to stop discharging when a battery is empty.
The picture below shows the default 'Discharge' vs. 'DC input low shut-down voltage' curves for the different battery types. The curve can be adjusted in the assistant.
Sustain prevents battery damage caused by leaving batteries in a deeply discharged state.
The Sustain Mode is entered after the battery has been flagged as discharged. The two conditions that trigger that are:
While Sustain is active, the battery voltage will be maintained at the sustain-voltage-level:
In case the battery voltage is below the sustain level, the battery will be charged up to the sustain- voltage-level with a little bit of power from the grid. After that the charger will maintain at that voltage level, still using power from the grid when necessary. The maximum charge current used for this is 5 Ampére per unit. The 5 A is the same for all voltages (12 / 24 / 48 V).
Of course, excess solar power will also be used to charge the batteries.
Sustain mode is stopped after there has been enough solar power available to raise the battery voltage 0.1 V above the sustain-voltage-level. Normal operation will then continue: solar deficits are complemented with power from the battery again. This 0.1 V is the threshold for 12 V systems, for 24 V it is 0.2 V and for 48 V it is 0.4V.
Use the Phase compensation setting in systems with a three-phase connection to the utility grid. The setting defines how the ESS interacts with the different phases.
When enabled (default), ESS balances the total power (L1 + L2 + L3) to zero. When disabled, ESS balances each phase separately to zero.
For single phase systems, this setting, either enabled or disabled, has no effect, and can therefore be ignored.
Phase compensation is by default enabled. Its effects depend on the type of ESS installed: a single-phase ESS (in a three-phase system) vs a three-phase ESS.
With Phase compensation enabled, the (single phase) ESS uses the battery to balance to total of all phase to 0 Watt.
See the following example, where the ESS is connected to L1, and by compensating for phase L2 and L3 as well, it regulates the total power at the distribution panel to 0 W.
|Load||100 W||400 W||200 W||700 W|
|ESS||-700 W||0 W||0 W||-700 W|
|Distribution box||-600 W||400 W||200 W||0 W|
With Phase compensation disabled, the (single phase) ESS uses the battery to balance only L1 to 0 Watt. L2 and L3 are visible on the CCGX, but not used by the ESS in any way.
Make sure to install the ESS on L1. When installed on another phase, the visualisation will be wrong.
In a three-phase ESS system, there is at least one Multi installed on each phase. We recommend leaving phase-compensation setting to its default: enabled.
ESS balances the total power (L1 + L2 + L3) to 0 W.
Intelligence to optimize the balance between the phases
ESS intelligently optimizes the balance between the phases as much as possible. But it will never charging on one phase and discharging on the other. To better understand how it works, closely read these examples:
When the phases are in balance, the solution is simple. Take this example: each phase is consuming 500 W, and there is only a little bit of PV, 100 W on each phase. Which makes the total per phase 400 W, and the sum of all phases 1200 W. The system will discharge the battery with 400 W on each phase, making the total of the system 0W. And also each separate phase will be at 0W.
When the phases are not in balance, it becomes more complicated:
For example, at a certain moment the PV is exceeding the loads on L1 with 1300 W. And on L2 and L3 there are only loads, 200 W each phase. Looking at the sum, the house as a whole is selling 900 W to the grid. Which for ESS means that it wants to charge the battery with 900 W.
A simple strategy could be to distribute this 900 W of excess power over all the phases: charging the battery with 300 W per phase:
|PV + Load||ESS||On the meter|
|L1||-1300 W||300 W||1000 W|
|L2||200 W||300 W||-500 W|
|L3||200 W||300 W||-500 W|
|Sum||-900 W||900 W||0 W|
The table shows that this is not optimal: the system is now selling energy on L2 and L3, while as a whole its buying power.
Another solution could be to match each phase. In other words, regulate each single phase to 0 W: charge on L1 with 1300 W, and discharge L2 and L3 each with 200 W. Not a good idea: total power being converted from AC to DC and back is 1700W. While only 900W is required to keep the total power to 0: 800 W is being converted, and creating losses into heat, without purpose.
|PV + Load||ESS||On the meter|
|L1||-1300 W||1300 W||0 W|
|L2||200 W||-200 W||0 W|
|L3||200 W||-200 W||0 W|
|Sum||-900 W||900 W||0 W|
(Note that this is actually the same as disabling phase compensation.)
Then the last solution: when producing energy, the battery is charged by the phases that produce energy. And, the other way around, when the system as a whole is using energy, the battery is discharged onto the phases that are using energy. In the above example this means that the required charging of the battery is done on L1, with 900W:
|PV + Load||ESS||On the meter|
|L1||-1300 W||900 W||-400 W|
|L2||200 W||0 W||200 W|
|L3||200 W||0 W||200 W|
|Sum||-900 W||900 W||0 W|
ESS balances the power of each seperate phase to 0 W.
Beware: using the system this way causes significant losses, as power will flow from one AC phase to another through the DC connections. Incurring losses while converting from AC to DC on one phase and then from DC to AC and the other phase.
In a multi-phase system, the charge current is configured per phase. There is not a total charge current which the system adheres to. This means that, for example when there is a relatively small battery bank, and a huge over production of PV on L1, and not on the other phases, only part of that over production on L1 will be used to charge the battery.
The Hub-1, Hub-2 and Hub-4 Assistant are deprecated, in favor of the ESS Assistant. See below for details.
Hub-1 policies that are deprecated in favor of ESS:
Above leaves us one policy where the Hub-1 Assistant can do things that ESS cannot.
Loadshedding is a feature in Hub-1 that is not often used, and therefore we did not implement it in the ESS Assistant. Instead of sticking to Hub-1, which we do not recommend and also not support(1), consider using other options.
For example (mis-)use the genset/start stop in CCGX.
Not available in the ESS System yet, but coming somewhere in 2017.
Replaced by battery life, and the (soon coming) Keep batteries charged option in the CCGX.
Load shedding is a feature in Hub-2 that is not often used, and therefore we did not implement it in the ESS Assistant. Instead of sticking to Hub-2, which we do not recommend and also not support(!), consider using other options.
For example (mis-)use the genset/start stop in CCGX.
The ESS can do this when you have a Fronius inverter. See the Zero feed-in option.
For other brands of PV Inverters, use the Hub2 v3 Assistant. Or even better, use an alternative, like installing MPPT Solar Chargers, leaving feed-back enabled, or install a Fronius PV Inverter.
Yes. ESS will always (with and without feed-in enabled) reduce grid usage to a minimum, preferably 0W. For that it will make sure the MPPT Solar Chargers keeps operating, even when the batteries are full.
A bit more detail per mode: In Keep batteries charged mode there is no power coming from the batteries to power the loads, unless grid fails. And PV power, when available, will always be used to power the loads.
In Optimize mode there is power coming from the batteries. Small load, big load, doesn't matter. Grid meter will read 0W until either the battery is empty or load is too high for the inverter to compensate for it.
Indeed, in optimize mode, the goal is to only charge the battery with power coming from PV. Which is what ESS will do. Except for two situations, both related to battery health and preventing to unnecessarily shorten its life time.
This question is typically asked by users or installers that are familiar with our previous configurations, for example Hub-1 or Hub-2, in a series installation rather than a grid-parallel installation. In that config, the system would switch to inverter mode when the batteries were full enough.
Which is nice in a way, but also had several disadvantages. An inverter offers a much weaker voltage supply than the public grid does. Which may lead to:
With ESS, in Optimize mode, the system will always remain connected. Even when the batteries are full. And though connected, it will not draw any substantial power from the grid. Which offers the stability of the grid for free.
In ESS, the conditions for the VE.Bus system to be in pass-trough, are:
Background: in an off-grid or backup system it makes sense to get a warning when the battery is almost empty. But in a system where the battery is only use to optimize self-consumption, it is totally normal to fully deplete the battery every day, and it does not make sense to receive daily notifications about that.
- disabling the Multi's low battery warning pop up on the CCGX is done by going to the Multi or Quattro menu, then into Alarms, and then set the Low DC voltage alarm to alarms only.
- suppress the email notifications by logging into the VRM Portal, and there set the Automatic alarm monitor to Alarms only
That is correct, the current shown is the RMS current. Which does not lead to real power, and therefore also not to real energy being fed into the grid.
Especially around 0 Watt real power, you’ll see that the RMS current is very high. This is caused by the X-capacitors in the Multi.
Look at the Input power readings instead. They'll fluctuate a lot less, and are a better representation for power and energy.
Note that explained charge cycle-restart mechanism differs from the stand-alone MPPT Solar Charger algorithm: they restart the charge cycle every day. See the solar charger manuals for more information about this.